A study of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna was carried out in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the municipality of Porteirinha, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Captures were performed with CDC light traps in 7 districts, 5 days per month, during 2 consecutive years (January 2000 to December 2001). A total of 3240 sand flies were captured and identified. Sixteen species were found, among which 15 belonged to the genus Lutzomyia
and one to the genus Brumptomyia
. Lutzomyia longipalpis
, a proven vector of AVL, was the predominant species (71.85%) throughout the time period. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) over the populational dynamics of the sand flies was determined. Statistical analysis of the data showed a significant correlation among the number of phlebotomine sand flies collected, rainfall, and humidity, whereas the effect of temperature was negligible, in that particular region. The amount of collected phlebotomine, the number of human cases, and the prevalence of canine AVL in the districts of Porteirinha are discussed.