A seroepidemiological survey for toxocariasis, among 180 schoolchildren of the public schools of Sorocaba City, state of São Paulo, Brazil, was carried out from August 2000 to July 2001. ELISA test was performed using excretory and secretory antigens for the detection of IgG anti- Toxocara
antibodies. Information regarding the children was obtained from the parents or legal guardians. The results showed that the mean age was 5.4 ± 1.4 years, the infection coefficient (IC) was 38.3 and the infection risk was higher among the children living in the city outskirts (IC = 47.4) where the socioeconomic conditions were worse than in the central region of the city (IC = 11.1). There was an association between higher frequency of seroreactivity in the ELISA test and the condition of living in a house with a yard and/or unpaved street. The same was observed in relation to a history of enteroparasitism. There was also an association between a seronegative ELISA test and previous treatment of pet dogs and/or cats with vermifuge. Based on these results, the authors propose that public health programs should include anthelmintic for dogs and cats during the antirabies vaccination campaigns, in order to diminish environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs and consequently human infection.