The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus among Injection Drug Users Who Use High Risk Inner-city Locales in Miami, Florida|
Clyde B McCoy; Lisa R Metsch; Fernando Collado-Mesa; Kristopher L Arheart; Sarah E Messiah; Dolores Katz & Paul Shapshak
In order to estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection in hard-to-reach intravenous drug users, 199 subjects from high-risk inner-city locales, the so called "shooting galleries", were consented, interviewed, and tested in Miami, FL, US. Positive HIV-1 status was based on repeatedly reactive ELISA and confirmatory Western Blot. Positive HCV status was based on reactive ELISA and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction techniques. Overall, 50 (25%) were not infected with either virus, 61 (31%) were HIV-1/HCV co-infected, 17 (8%) infected by HIV-1 only, and 71 (36%) infected by HCV only. The results of the multivariable analyses showed that more years using heroin was the only significant risk factor for HCV only infection (odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.07, 1.24) and for HIV-1/HCV co-infection (odds ratio = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.09, 1.26). This paper demonstrates that HIV-1/HCV co-infection is highly prevalent among so called "shooting galleries".
hepatitis C virus - human immunodeficiency virus 1 - co-infection - injection drug users