Identification of Casein Kinase 1, Casein Kinase 2, and cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase-like Activities in Trypanosoma evansi|
José Manuel Galán-Caridad; Maritza Calabokis; Graciela Uzcanga; Frank Aponte & José Bubis
Trypanosoma evansi contains protein kinases capable of phosphorylating endogenous substrates with apparent molecular masses in the range between 20 and 205 kDa. The major phosphopolypeptide band, pp55, was predominantly localized in the particulate fraction. Anti-α and anti-β tubulin monoclonal antibodies recognized pp55 by Western blot analyses, suggesting that this band corresponds to phosphorylated tubulin. Inhibition experiments in the presence of emodin, heparin, and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate indicated that the parasite tubulin kinase was a casein kinase 2 (CK2)-like activity. GTP, which can be utilized instead of ATP by CK2, stimulated rather than inactivated the phosphorylation of tubulin in the parasite homogenate and particulate fraction. However, GTP inhibited the cytosolic CK2 responsible for phosphorylating soluble tubulin and other soluble substrates. Casein and two selective peptide substrates, P1 (RRKDLHDDEEDEAMSITA) for casein kinase (CK1) and P2 (RRRADDSDDDDD) for CK2, were recognized as substrates in T. evansi. While the enzymes present in the soluble fraction predominantly phosphorylated P1, P2 was preferentially labeled in the particulate fractions. These results demonstrated the existence of CK1-like and CK2-like activities primarily located in the parasite cytosolic and membranous fractions, respectively. Histone II-A and kemptide (LRRASVA) also behaved as suitable substrates, implying the existence of other Ser/Thr kinases in T. evansi. Cyclic AMP only increased the phosphorylation of histone II-A and kemptide in the cytosol, demonstrating the existence of soluble cAMP-dependent protein kinase-like activities in T. evansi. However, no endogenous substrates for this enzyme were identified in this fraction. Further evidences were obtained by using PKI (6-22), a reported inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinases, which specifically hindered the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of histone II-A and kemptide in the parasite soluble fraction. Since the sum of the values obtained in the parasite cytosolic and particulate fractions were always higher than the values observed in the total T. evansi lysate, the kinase activities examined here appeared to be inhibited in the original extract.
Trypanosoma evansi - protein kinases - casein kinases - cAMP-dependent protein kinases - signal transduction