A review is made of the recorded species of the coccidian genus Cyclospora
and major events leading up to the discovery of C. cayetanensis
, which is responsible for serious outbreaks of diarrhoea in man and is one of the aetiological agents of "traveller's diarrhoea". Humans appear to be the specific hosts, with the entire life-cycle in the intestine: to date there is no convincing evidence that the disease is a zoonosis. A description is given of oocysts and endogenous stages of C. schneideri
n.sp., in the snake Anilius scytale scytale
. Sporulation is exogenous and completed after about one week at 24-26°. Mature oocysts 19.8 × 16.6 (15.1 × 13.8-25.7 × 20.1), shape-index 1.2 (1.0-1.3): no oocyst residuum or polar bodies. Oocyst wall a single colourless, smooth layer with no micropyle: it is rapidly deformed or broken. Sporocysts 13.6 × 9.4 (11.3 × 8.3-15.1 × 9.9), shape-index 1.4 (1.2-1.5) with an inconspicuous Stieda body. Sporozoites 11-13 × 2.5-3. Endogenous stages are intracytoplasmic in the epithelial cells of the small intestine and with the characters of the Eimeriorina.