The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti
was introduced in Peru in 1852 and was considered to be eradicated in 1958. In 2001, Ae. aegypti
had been recorded in 15 out of 24 Peruvian Departments. Peru has great ecological differences between the east and west sides of Andes. Because of this, we consider that Ae. aegypti
populations of both east and west sides can have a genetically distinct population structure.
In this study we examined genetic variability and genealogical relationships among three Ae. aegypti
Peruvian populations: Lima, Piura (west Andes), and Iquitos (east Andes) using a fragment of the ND4 gene of the mitochondrial genome. Three haplotypes were detected among 55 samples. Lima and Iquitos showed the same haplotype (Haplotype I), whereas Piura has two haplotypes (Haplotype II and III). Haplotype II is four mutational steps apart from Haplotype I, while Haplotype III is 13 mutational steps apart from Haplotype I in the network. The analysis of molecular variation showed that mostly of the detected genetic variation occurs at interpopulational level. The significant value Φst
suggests that Piura population is structured in relation to Lima and Iquitos populations and the gene flow of the ND4 is restricted in Piura when compared to Lima and Iquitos. Genetic relationship between haplotype I and haplotype II suggests introduction of the same mtDNA lineage into those localities. However the existence of a genetically distant haplotype III also suggests introduction of at least two Ae. aegypti
lineages in Peru.