The avian eye trematode Philophthalmus lachrymosus
Braun, 1902 is for the first time referred naturally occurring in a non-human mammalian host. Previously, natural infections with P. lachrymosus
and other species of Philophthalmus
have been occasionally reported from man, with few data on experimental infections of non-human mammals. Results presented here are related to the report of two cases of philophthalmosis due to natural infections of wild Brazilian capybaras, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris
L., 1766 with P. lachrymosus
and associated pathology. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions as well as new morphometric data on the parasite are presented.