A total of 206 serum samples from children (3-14 years old) living in the Amador County (La Chorrera District, Province of Panama) were screened by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for the presence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi
. Positive sera were confirmed by recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. The presence of blood trypanosomes was investigated by hemoculture and subsequently identify by a duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by dot blot hybridization. The results indicated a prevalence of 9.7% for trypanosome infections, a seroprevalence of 2.9% against T. cruzi
and a predominance of T. rangeli
infection (6.8%). The immunological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.