Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania
sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus
, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus
) and 74 free domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris
) sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous
, and 2 maned wolves, C. brachyurus
). Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research.