In Brazil, four populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis
each producing different sex pheromones are recognised. It has been suggested that these chemotype populations represent true sibling species. In this study we present the results of an analysis, by coupled gas cromotography - mass spectrometry, of the pheromones of males
from two different municipalities of the state of São Paulo. Our study showed that L. longipalpis
from these two municipalities produced different sex pheromones from each other. This coupled with the remarkable difference between the epidemiological situation in Araçatuba and Espírito Santo do Pinhal, suggests that the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B and cembrene-1 populations may have different vectorial capacities.