In several districts of Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil we found Anopheles
E to be the primary vector of human malaria parasites, and during 2001-2002 it was significantly more abundant than An. darlingi (p < 0.001). Other species sampled were
An. (Nys.) braziliensis
, An. (Ano.) peryassui, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari, An. (Nys.) oswaldoi s.l.
, and An. (Nys.) triannulatus.
As determined by the ELISA technique An. darlingi
had a higher overall infection rate (2.1%) compared with An. albitarsis
E (1.2%). However, a marginally higher proportion of An. albitarsis
E was infected with Plasmodium vivax
compared with An. darlingi
, and the An. albitarsis
E biting index was also much higher. These results suggest the importance of An. albitarsis
E in malaria transmission in a savannah ecoregion of northern Amazonian Brazil, and reconfirm the importance of An. darlingi
even if at lower abundance.