The mature oocysts of Eimeria lepidosirenis
n.sp. are described in faeces removed from the lower region of the intestine of a single specimen of the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa
, from Belém, state of Pará, Amazonian Brazil. Oocysts with endogenous sporulation: spherical to slightly subspherical, 30.8 × 30.3 μm (28.1 × 25.9 -33.3 × 31.8), shape-index (ratio length/width) 1.0, n = 25. Oocyst wall a very thin, single layer approximately 0.74 μm thick, smooth, colourless, with no micropyle and rapidly breaking down to release the sporocysts. Oocyst residuum a bulky ovoid to spherical mass of approximately 20.0 × 15 μm, composed of fine granules and larger globules and enclosed by a very fine membrane: no polar bodies seen. Sporocysts 15.5 × 9.0 μm (14.5 × 8.0 16.0 × 9.0), shape index 1.7 (1.6-1.8), n = 30, ovoid, with one extremity rather pointed and with a very delicate Stieda body but no sub-Stieda body: sporocyst wall a single extremely thin layer with no valves. Sporocyst residuum a spherical to ovoid mass of approximately 5.0 × 4.0 μm, composed of fine granules and small globules and enclosed by a very fine membrane. Sporozoites strongly recurved at their ends and apparently with only a single refractile body. Site of development in the host uncertain: no evidence of endogenous stages was found in fresh scrapings and stained smears of the intestinal epithelium.