High-fat diets induce weight gain and fatty liver in wild-type mice. Schistosomiasis mansoni infection also promotes hepatic injury. This study was designed to quantify hepatic alterations in schistosomiasis mansoni-infected mice fed a high fat-rich chow compared to mice fed a standard rodent chow, using stereology. Female SW mice fed each either high-fat diet (29% lipids) or standard chow (12% lipids) over 8 months, and then were infected with Schistosoma mansoni
cercariae. Four experimental groups were studied: infected mice fed a high-fat diet (IHFC) or standard chow (ISC), uninfected mice fed a high-fat diet (HFC) or standard chow (SC). Mice were sacrificed during early infection (9 weeks from exposure). The following hepatic biometry and the stereology parameters were determined: volume density (hepatocytes [h], sinusoids [s], steatosis [st] and hepatic fibrosis [hf]); numerical density (hepatocyte nuclei Nv[h]); absolute number of total hepatocyte N[h], normal hepatocyte N[nh], and binucleated hepatocyte N[bh], percentage of normal hepatocyte P[nh] and binucleated hepatocyte P[bh]. IHFC and HFC groups exhibited TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and body mass significantly greater (p < 0.05) than control group. No significant differences were found regards liver volume (p = 0.07). Significant differences were observed regards P[nh] (p = 0.0045), P[bh] (p = 0.0045), Nv[h] (p = 0.0006), N[h] (p = 0.0125), N[bh] (p = 0.0164) and N[nh] (p = 0.0078). IHFC mice group presented 29% of binucleated hepatocytes compared to HFC group (19%), ISC group (17%) and SC (6%). Volume density was significantly different between groups: Vv[h] (p = 0.0052), Vv[s] (p = 0.0025), Vv[st] (p = 0.0004), and Vv[hf] (p = 0.0007). In conclusion, schistosomiasis mansoni
infection with concurrent high-fat diet promotes intensive quantitative changes in hepatic structure, contributing to an increasing on hepatic regeneration.