Urinary schistosomiasis remains a significant burden for Africa and the Middle East. The success of population-based control programs will depend on their impact, over many years, on Schistosoma haematobium
reinfection and associated disease. In a multi-year (1984-1992) control program in Kenya, we examined risk for S. haematobium
reinfection and late disease during and after annual school-based treatment. In this setting, long-term risk of new infection was independently associated with location, age, hematuria, and incomplete treatment, but not with sex or frequency of water contact. Thus, very local environmental features and age-related factors played an important role in S. haematobium
transmission, such that population-based control programs should optimally tailor their efforts to local conditions on a village-by-village basis. In 2001-2002, the late benefits of earlier participation in school-based antischistosomal therapy were estimated in a cohort of formerly-treated adult residents compared to never-treated adults from the same villages. Among age-matched subjects, current infection prevalence was lower among those who had received remote therapy. In addition, prevalence of bladder abnormality was lower in the treated group, who were free of severe bladder disease. Treatment of affected adults resulted in rapid resolution of infection and any detectable bladder abnormalities. We conclude that continued treatment into adulthood, as well as efforts at long-term prevention of infection (transmission control) are necessary to achieve optimal morbidity control in affected communities.