Herein we have focused attention on major phenotypic features of peripheral blood eosinophils from chronic Schistosoma mansoni
-infected patients. For this purpose, detailed immunophenotypic profiles of a range of cell surface markers were performed, including activation markers (CD23/CD69/CD25/HLA-DR), co-stimulatory molecules (CD28/CD80/CD86), chemokine receptors (CXCR1/CXCR2/CCR3/CCR5) besides L-selectin-CD62L and adhesion molecules (CD18/CD54). Our major findings pointed out increased frequency of CD23+
-cells, besides decreased percentages of CD69+
-eosinophils, suggesting a chronic activation status with low frequency of early activated eosinophils in chronic S. mansoni
-infected patients (INT) in comparison to non-infected individuals (NI). Moreover, a dichotomic expression of beta-chemokine receptors was observed during human schistosomiasis mansoni with higher CCR5 and lower levels of CCR3 observed between groups. Enhanced expression of co-stimulatory receptors (CD28/CD86) and adhesion molecules (CD54/CD18), besides striking lower frequency of L-selectin+
were reported for eosinophils from INT group as compared to NI. Interestingly, the frequency of CD62L+
-eosinophils and a range of cell activation related molecules pointed out an opposite pattern of association in NI and INT, where only INT patients that display lower frequency of CD62L+
-eosinophils (first CD62L tertile) kept the unusual relationship between the expression of L-selectin and the CD23 activation marker. These findings suggest that distinct dynamic of activation markers expressed by eosinophils may occur during chronic S. mansoni infection.