is the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi
, the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). Although there is strong evidence that Lu. longipalpis
is a species complex, not all data concerning populations from Brazil support this hypothesis. The issue is still somewhat controversial for this large part of Lu. longipalpis
distribution range even though that it is the Latin American region contributing to most of the cases of AVL. In this mini-review we consider in detail the current data for the Brazilian populations and conclude that Lu. longipalpis
is a complex of incipient vector species with a complexity similar to Anopheles gambiae
s.s. in Africa.