Prevalence and level of antibodies to the circumsporozoite protein of human malaria parasites in five states of the Amazon region of Brazil|
Arruda, Mercia E; Zimmerman, Robert H; Souza, Renata MC & Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria infection and antibodies against the repetitive epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) proteins of Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax VK210, P. vivax VK247, and P. vivax-like in individuals living in the states of Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Amazonas, and Acre. Active malaria transmission was occurring in all studied sites, except in Acre. P. falciparum was the predominant species in Pará and Rondônia and P. vivax in Mato Grosso. Infection by P. malariae was low but this Plasmodium species was detected in Rondônia (3.5%), Mato Grosso (2.5%), and Pará (0.8%). High prevalence and levels of serological reactivity against the CS repeat peptides of P. falciparum were detected in Rondônia (93%) and Pará (85%). Sera containing antibodies against the CS repeat of P. malariae occurred more frequently in Rondônia (79%), Pará (76%), and Amazonas (68%). Antibodies against the repeat epitope of the standard CS protein of P. vivax VK210, P. vivax VK247, and P. vivax-like were more frequent in Rondônia, Pará, and Mato Grosso. The high frequency of reactions to P. malariae in most of the areas suggests that the infection by this Plasmodium species has been underestimated in Brazil.
Plasmodium - infection - Amazon region - Brazil