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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz
ISSN: 1678-8060
EISSN: 1678-8060
Vol. 102, No. 5, 2007, pp. 541-547
Bioline Code: oc07086
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 102, No. 5, 2007, pp. 541-547

 en The leishmaniases - survival and expansion in a changing world. A mini-review
Shaw, Jeffrey

Abstract

The number of cases of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasing globally at an alarming rate irrespective of the region and the leishmaniases are amongst the top emergent diseases in spite of control measures. In the present review attention is drawn to some of the reasons for this. The leishmaniases have expanded beyond their natural ecotopes due to the ecological chaos caused by man and this in turn affects the levels of his exposure to the vectors. Examples of how different phenomana (such as war, civilian migration, immuno-suppression caused by medication and viral infections, globalization of work and leisure and transmission outside endemic areas) contribute to the spread and increase of the disease are discussed.

Keywords
cutaneous - visceral - leishmaniasis - war - social stress - travel - migration

 
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