Antiretroviral resistance in individuals presenting therapeutic failure and subtypes of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the Northeast Region of Brazil|
Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos; de Brito, Ana Maria; Pereira, Sirleide; Medeiros, Daniela & Oliveira, Suelene
This study aimed to analyze human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mutation profiles related to antiretroviral resistance following therapeutic failure, and the distribution of hiv subtypes in the Northeast Region of Brazil. A total of 576 blood samples from AIDS patients presenting therapeutic failure between 2002 and 2004 were analyzed. The genotyping kit viroSeq® was used to perform viral amplification in order to identify mutations related to hiv pol gene resistance. An index of 91.1% of the patients presented mutations for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nrti), 58.7% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nnrti), and 94.8% for protease inhibitors (pi). The most prevalent mutations were 184V and 215E for nrti, 103N and 190A for nnrti. Most mutations associated with PIs were secondary, but significant frequencies were observed in codons 90 (25.2%), 82 (21.1%), and 30 (16.2%). The resistance index to one class of antiretrovirals was 14%, to two classes of antiretrovirals 61%, and to three classes 18.9%. Subtype B was the most prevalent (82.4%) followed by subtype F (11.8%). The prevalence of mutations related to nrti and nnrti was the same in the two subtypes, but codon analysis related to PI showed a higher frequency of mutations in codon 63 in subtype B and in codon 36 in subtype F. The present study showed that there was a high frequency of primary mutations, which offered resistance to nrti and nnrti. Monitoring patients with treatment failure is an important tool for aiding physicians in rescue therapy.
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 - resistance to drugs - genotyping - subtypes - Brazil