Group A Rotavirus Genotypes and the Ongoing Brazilian Experience - A Review|
Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal & Linhares, Alexandre C.
Brazil was the first Latin American country to introduce universal group A rotavirus (RV-A) vaccination in March 2006, resulting in a unique epidemiological scenario. Since RV-A first identification in Brazil, 2,691 RV-A-positive stool samples, collected between 1982- 2007, were typed by independent research groups throughout the country. In the pre-vaccination era, 2,492 RV-A-positive samples collected from 1982-2005 were successfully typed, while 199 samples were analyzed from 2006-2007. According to the reviewed studies, there were two important times in the pre-vaccination era: (i) the period from 1982-1995, during which the detection of G5P RV-A, in addition to the classical genotypes G1-4, challenged vaccine development programs; and (ii) the period from 1996-2005, during which genotype G9P emerged, following a global trend. The rate of G2P RV-A detection decreased from 26% (173/653) during 1982-1995 to 2% (43/1,839) during 1996-2005. The overall detection rate of RV-A genotypes from 1982-2005 was as follows: 43% (n = 1,079) G1P/G1P[not typed (NT)]; 20% (n = 488) G9P/G9P[NT]; 9% (n = 216) G2P/G2P[NT]; 6% (n = 151) G3P/G3P[NT]; 4% (n = 103) G4P/G4P[NT]; and 4% (n = 94) G5P/G5P[NT]. Mixed infections accounted for 189 (7%) of the positive samples, while atypical G/P combinations or other genotypes, including G6, G8, G10 and G12, were identified in 172 (7%) samples. The initial surveillance studies carried out in several Brazilian states with RV-A-positive samples collected in 2006 and 2007 show a predominance of G2P strains (148/199 or 74%). Herein, we review RV-A typing studies carried out since the 1980s in Brazil, highlighting the dynamics of RV-A strain circulation profiles before and early after universal use of RV-A vaccine in Brazil.
rotavirus - genotypes - vaccine - Brazil