In order to study the infectious agents causing human disseminated cryptococcosis in the state of Pará, North Brazil, 56 isolates of Cryptococcus
spp. (54 isolated from cerebral spinal fluid and two from blood cultures) from 43 cases diagnosed between 2003-2007 were analysed. The species were determined through morphological and physiological tests and genotypes were determined by URA5-RFLP and PCR-fingerprinting (wild-type phage M13). The following species and genotypes were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans
VNI (28/56, 50%), Cryptococcus gattii
VGII (25/56, 44.64%) and C. gattii
VGI (3/56, 5.26%). The genotype VNI occurred in 12 out of 14 HIV-positive adults, whereas the genotype VGII occurred in 11 out of 21 HIV-negative adults (p < 0.02, OR = 6.6 IC95%
0.98-56.0). All patients less than 12 years old were HIV negative and six cases were caused by the VGII genotype, one by the VGI and one by VNI. Therefore, endemic primary mycosis in HIV-negative individuals, including an unexpectedly high number of children, caused by the VGII genotype deserves further study and suggests the need for surveillance on cryptococcal infection in the state of Pará, Eastern Amazon.