Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz
Vol. 104, No. 2, 2009, pp. 211-220
Bioline Code: oc09037
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 104, No. 2, 2009, pp. 211-220
© Copyright 2009 - Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Fiocruz
Immunopathology in ocular toxoplasmosis: facts and clues|
Garweg, Justus G. & Candolfim, Ermanno
Although parasite-mediated host cell lysis is deemed to be an important cause of tissue destruction in ocular
toxoplasmosis (OT), the severity of the disease is probably correlated with hypersensitivity and inflammation.
Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory process in recurrent OT are poorly understood.
Recent evidence has identified interleukin (IL) 17 as a marker for disease severity. The ocular and cerebral presence
of this cytokine is generally associated with the induction of autoimmune responses in the brain and the eye.
Indeed, there are indications that autoimmunity may contribute to clinical variability in the activity of OT. IL-23,
which induces the proliferation of IL-17-producing cells and IL-27, which is a counterplayer to IL-17, may regulate
T(H)-1-cell-mediated responses in OT. The importance of these cytokines in experimental models of uveitis and encephalitis
has been recently reported. CD25(+) regulatory T-cells may control the local inflammatory response and
protect the host against collateral inflammatory tissue damage. The responses of these cells to OT may be suitably
tailored to cope with either an acquired or a congenital aetiology. Knowledge relating to immunoreactivity in OT
has grown impressively during the past few years. Its characteristic and variable features have been identified and
the potential relevance of autoimmunity has been assessed. In light of this knowledge, potential future treatment
options have been considered.
ocular toxoplasmosis - acquired toxoplasmosis - congenitally contracted toxoplasmosis - experimental autoimmune uveitis - cytokines - chemokines
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