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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz
ISSN: 1678-8060
EISSN: 1678-8060
Vol. 104, No. 2, 2009, pp. 211-220
Bioline Code: oc09037
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 104, No. 2, 2009, pp. 211-220

 en Immunopathology in ocular toxoplasmosis: facts and clues
Garweg, Justus G. & Candolfim, Ermanno

Abstract

Although parasite-mediated host cell lysis is deemed to be an important cause of tissue destruction in ocular toxoplasmosis (OT), the severity of the disease is probably correlated with hypersensitivity and inflammation. Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory process in recurrent OT are poorly understood. Recent evidence has identified interleukin (IL) 17 as a marker for disease severity. The ocular and cerebral presence of this cytokine is generally associated with the induction of autoimmune responses in the brain and the eye. Indeed, there are indications that autoimmunity may contribute to clinical variability in the activity of OT. IL-23, which induces the proliferation of IL-17-producing cells and IL-27, which is a counterplayer to IL-17, may regulate T(H)-1-cell-mediated responses in OT. The importance of these cytokines in experimental models of uveitis and encephalitis has been recently reported. CD25(+) regulatory T-cells may control the local inflammatory response and protect the host against collateral inflammatory tissue damage. The responses of these cells to OT may be suitably tailored to cope with either an acquired or a congenital aetiology. Knowledge relating to immunoreactivity in OT has grown impressively during the past few years. Its characteristic and variable features have been identified and the potential relevance of autoimmunity has been assessed. In light of this knowledge, potential future treatment options have been considered.

Keywords
ocular toxoplasmosis - acquired toxoplasmosis - congenitally contracted toxoplasmosis - experimental autoimmune uveitis - cytokines - chemokines

 
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