In Nigeria, schistosomiasis, caused predominantly by the species Schistosoma haematobium
, is highly endemic in resource-poor communities. We performed a school-based survey in two rural communities in Osun State (Southwestern Nigeria) and assessed macrohaematuria, microhaematuria and proteinuria as indirect indicators for the presence of disease. Urine samples were inspected macroscopically for haematuria and screened for microhaematuria and proteinuria using urine reagent strips. The microscopic examination of schistosome eggs was used as the gold standard for diagnosis. In total, 447 schoolchildren were included in this study and had a 51% prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis. The sensitivity of microhaematuria (68%) and proteinuria (53%) for infection with S. haematobium was relatively low. In patients with a heavy infection (≥500 eggs/10 mL), the sensitivity of microhaematuria was high (95%). When the presence of macrohaematuria and the concomitant presence of microhaematuria and proteinuria were combined, it revealed a sensitivity of 63%, a specificity of 93% and a positive predictive value of 91%. Macrohaematuria also showed high specificity (96%) and a positive predictive value of 92%, while sensitivity was < 50%. These data show that combining urine reagent strip tests (presence of proteinuria and microhaematuria) and information on macrohaematuria increased the accuracy of the rapid diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in an endemic rural West African setting. This simple approach can be used to increase the quality of monitoring of schistosomiasis in schoolchildren.