control is now being hampered by drug resistance. Orthologous Plasmodium falciparum
genes linked to chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine chemoresistance have been identified in P. vivax parasites, but few studies have been performed. The goal of the present work is to characterise pvmdr1 and pvdhfr genes in parasite isolates from a Brazilian endemic area where no molecular investigation had been previously conducted. The pvmdr1 analysis revealed the existence of single (85.7%) and double (14.3%) mutant haplotypes, while the pvdhfr examination showed the presence of double (57.2%) and triple (42.8%) mutant haplotypes. The implications of these findings are discussed.