Bacteria, fungi and parasites are in constant contact with the insect gut environment and can influence different aspects of the host gut physiology. Usually, some of these microorganisms develop and survive in the digestive tract. Therefore, the gut environment must be able to tolerate certain populations of these organisms for the establishment of interactions between non-pathogenic bacteria, parasites and the gut. This review provides a brief overview of the biological and molecular mechanisms that microorganisms use to interact with the gut epithelia in mosquitoes and speculates on their significances for the development of bacteria and Trypanosoma cruzi
in the guts of triatomines.