This work reports a survey of Leptospira
spp in pampas deer ( Ozotoceros bezoarticus
) in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy pampas deer were captured in the dry season and surveyed using PCR, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) (n = 51) and by both techniques (n = 47). PCR detected infections in two pampas deer and MAT detected infections in three. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, the PCR-amplified fragment detected in deer was identified as Leptospira interrogans
. Serovars Pomona and Butembo were detected using MAT and the highest titre was 200 for serovar Pomona. Epidemiological aspects of the findings are discussed.