We present the results of paleoparasitological analyses in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris
, rodent endemic to rocky areas of Brazil’s semiarid region. The coprolites were collected from excavations at the archaeological site of Toca dos Coqueiros, in the National Park of Serra da Capivara, southeastern of state of Piauí. Syphacia
sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) eggs were identified in coprolites dated at 5,300 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of the genus Syphacia
in rodent coprolites in the Americas.