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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz
ISSN: 1678-8060
EISSN: 1678-8060
Vol. 107, No. 8, 2012, pp. 985-992
Bioline Code: oc12163
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 107, No. 8, 2012, pp. 985-992

 en Enhanced T cell activation in Plasmodium falciparum check for this species in other resources malaria-infected human immunodeficiency virus-1 patients from Mozambique
Chavale, Helena; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria & Enosse, Sonia

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection has an important impact on malaria. Plasmodium falciparum check for this species in other resources and HIV-1 co-infected patients (Pf/HIV) present with a high degree of anaemia, enhanced parasitaemia and decreased CD4+ T cell counts, which increase the risk of developing severe malaria. In addition, infection with either Pf or HIV-1 alone causes extensive immune activation. Our hypothesis was that lymphocyte activation is potentiated in Pf/HIV co-infected patients, consequently worsening their immunosuppressed state. To test this hypothesis, 22 Pf/HIV patients, 34 malaria patients, 29 HIV/AIDS patients and 10 healthy controls without malaria or HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) from Maputo/Mozambique were recruited for this study. As expected, anaemia was most prevalent in the Pf/HIV group. A significant variation in parasite density was observed in the Pf/HIV co-infected group (110-75,000 parasites/μL), although the median values were similar to those of the malaria only patients. The CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower in the Pf/HIV group than in the HIV/AIDS only or malaria only patients. Lymphocyte activation was evaluated by the percentage of activation-associated molecules [CD38 expression on CD8+ and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on CD3+ T cells]. The highest CD38 expression was detected in the Pf/HIV co-infected patients (median = 78.2%). The malaria only (median = 50%) and HIV/AIDS only (median = 52%) patients also exhibited elevated levels of these molecules, although the values were lower than those of the Pf/HIV co-infected cases. Our findings suggest that enhanced T-cell activation in co-infected patients can worsen the immune response to both diseases.

Keywords
malaria/HIV-AIDS - cellular activation - Plasmodium - co-infection - CD4+ T cells - Mozambique

 
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