The haematological changes and release of soluble mediators, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO), during uncomplicated malaria have not been well studied, especially in Brazilian areas in which the disease is endemic. Therefore, the present study examined these factors in acute (day 0) and convalescent phase (day 15) patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum
and Plasmodium vivax
malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Haematologic parameters were measured using automated cell counting, CRP levels were measured with ELISA and NO plasma levels were measured by the Griess reaction. Our data indicate that individuals with uncomplicated P. vivax
and P. falciparum
infection presented similar inflammatory profiles with respect to white blood cells, with high band cell production and a considerable degree of thrombocytopaenia during the acute phase of infection. Higher CRP levels were detected in acute P. vivax
infection than in acute P. falciparum
infection, while higher NO was detected in patients with acute and convalescent P. falciparum
infections. Although changes in these mediators cannot predict malaria infection, the haematological aspects associated with malaria infection, especially the roles of platelets and band cells, need to be investigated further.