Phlebotomine sandflies are the vectors for the protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniasis. The present study investigated the species composition of sandfly fauna in the rural district of Taquaruçú, municipality of Palmas, state of Tocantins, Brazil and compared the diversity of species among intradomicile, peridomicile and forest environments during the dry and rainy seasons. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps over the course of three months during the dry and rainy seasons. A total of 767 specimens were captured, belonging to different 32 species. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia goiana
(Martins, Falcão & Silva), Sciopemyia sordellii
(Shannon & Del Ponte), Evandromyia carmelinoi
(Ryan Fraiha, Lainson & Shaw), Evandromyia termitophila
(Martins, Falcão & Silva), Nyssomyia whitmani
(Antunes & Coutinho) and Lutzomyia longipalpis
(Lutz & Neiva). The highest species diversity (30) and the greatest percentage of specimens (78.3%) were obtained during the rainy season. During the dry season, the species richness and abundance were greater in domestic environments. However, during the rainy season, the forest displayed the highest species richness and the domestic environment exhibited the greatest species abundance. Several important vector species are reported in this study.