In this study, the in vitro effects of amodiaquine (AQ) monotherapy on the egg output of paired adult Schistosoma mansoni
worms and their survival during in vitro culture were assessed. In addition, the gross morphological alterations of male and female worms caused by AQ were visually observed under a dissecting microscope. AQ significantly reduced the daily egg output of paired adult S. mansoni
worms following incubation for 14 days at 1-5 μg/mL, but not at 0.5 μg/mL, compared with the control group. AQ also reduced the survival of male and female worms at concentrations of 2 and 5 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, exposure to 5 μg/mL AQ caused severe swelling and/or localisation of black content in the body of all male and female worms within one or two days of incubation; subsequently, shrinkage in the male worms and elongation in the female worms were observed. The initial morphological alterations caused by AQ occurred along the intestinal tract of the male and female worms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report not only the efficacy of AQ at concentrations lower than 5 μg/mL on paired adult S. mansoni
worms, but also the effects of AQ on the intestinal tracts of worms in in vitro culture.