Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is recognised as a serious emerging public health problem in India. In this study, environmental parameters, such as land surface temperature (LST) and renormalised difference vegetation indices (RDVI), were used to delineate the association between environmental variables and Phlebotomus argentipes
abundance in a representative endemic region of Bihar, India. The adult P. argentipes
were collected between September 2009-February 2010 using the hand-held aspirator technique. The distribution of P. argentipes
was analysed with the LST and RDVI of the peak and lean seasons. The association between environmental covariates and P. argentipes
density was analysed a multivariate linear regression model. The sandfly density at its maximum in September, whereas the minimum density was recorded in January. The regression model indicated that the season, minimum LST, mean LST and mean RDVI were the best environmental covariates for the P. argentipes
distribution. The final model indicated that nearly 74% of the variance of sandfly density could be explained by these environmental covariates. This approach might be useful for mapping and predicting the distribution of P. argentipes
, which may help the health agencies that are involved in the kala-azar control programme focus on high-risk areas.