An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM), Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi
(44.5%) followed by Evandromyia walkeri
(10.6%) and Micropygomyia rorotaensis
(9.8%). Here we also describe Evandromyia
sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi
and Evandromyia sipani
in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi
as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.