Chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in the lesions of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis|
Díaz, Nilka Luisa; Zerpa, Olga & Tapia, Félix Jacobo
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) presents distinct active clinical forms with different grades of severity, known as localised (LCL), intermediate (ICL) and diffuse (DCL) cutaneous leishmaniasis. LCL and DCL are associated with a polarised T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 immune response, respectively, whereas ICL, or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis, is associated with an exacerbated immune response and a mixed cytokine expression profile. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in cellular migration and are critical in the inflammatory response. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of the chemokines CXCL10, CCL4, CCL8, CCL11 and CXCL8 and the chemokine receptors CCR3, CXCR3, CCR5 and CCR7 in the lesions of patients with different clinical forms of ACL using immunohistochemistry. LCL patients exhibited a high density of CXCL10+, CCL4+ and CCL8+ cells, indicating an important role for these chemokines in the local Th1 immune response and the migration of CXCR3+ cells. LCL patients showed a higher density of CCR7+ cells than ICL or DCL patients, suggesting major dendritic cell (DC) migration to lymph nodes. Furthermore, DCL was associated with low expression levels of Th1-associated chemokines and CCL11+ epidermal DCs, which contribute to the recruitment of CCR3+ cells. Our findings also suggest an important role for epidermal cells in the induction of skin immune responses through the production of chemokines, such as CXCL10, by keratinocytes.
chemokine; chemokine receptor; cutaneous leishmaniasis