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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz
ISSN: 1678-8060
EISSN: 1678-8060
Vol. 109, No. 1, 2014, pp. 21-28
Bioline Code: oc14004
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 109, No. 1, 2014, pp. 21-28

 en Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?
Camargos Costa, Daniela; Madureira, Ana Paula; Cotta Amaral, Lara; Marinho Sanchez, Bruno Antônio; Teixeira Gomes, Luciano; Fernandes Fontes, Cor Jésus; Ezequiel Limongi, Jean; Alves de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira & Carvalho, Luzia Helena

Abstract

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/μL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.

Keywords
malaria; PCR; reproducibility; submicroscopic infection

 
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