Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) threatens global TB control and is a major public health concern in several countries. We therefore developed a multiplex assay (LINE-TB/MDR) that is able to identify the most frequent mutations related to rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. The assay is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction, membrane hybridisation and colorimetric detection targeting of rpo
B and kat
G genes, as well as the inh
A promoter, which are all known to carry specific mutations associated with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The assay was validated on a reference panel of 108 M. tuberculosis
isolates that were characterised by the proportion method and by DNA sequencing of the targets. When comparing the performance of LINE-TB/MDR with DNA sequencing, the sensitivity, specificity and agreement were 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, for RMP and 77.6%, 90.6% and 88.9%, respectively, for INH. Using drug sensibility testing as a reference standard, the performance of LINE-TB/MDR regarding sensitivity, specificity and agreement was 100%, 100% and 100% (95%), respectively, for RMP and 77%, 100% and 88.7% (82.2-95.1), respectively, for INH. LINE-TB/MDR was compared with GenoType MTBDRplus for 65 isolates, resulting in an agreement of 93.6% (86.7-97.5) for RIF and 87.4% (84.3-96.2) for INH. LINE-TB/MDR warrants further clinical validation and may be an affordable alternative for MDR-TB diagnosis.