Malaria is still a primary health problem in Colombia. The locality of Tierradentro is situated in the municipality of Montelíbano, Córdoba, in the northwest of Colombia, and has one of the highest annual parasite index of malaria nationwide. However, the vectors involved in malaria transmission in this locality have not yet been identified. In this study, the local anthropophilic Anopheles
composition and natural infectivity with Plasmodium
were investigated. In August 2009, 927 female Anopheles
mosquitoes were collected in eight localities using the human landing catch method and identified based on their morphology. Cryptic species were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer (ITS)2 molecular analysis. Eight species [ Anopheles nuneztovari
(92.8%), Anopheles darlingi
(5.1%), Anopheles triannulatus
(1.8%), Anopheles pseudopunctipennis
(0.2%), Anopheles punctimacula
(0.2%), Anopheles apicimacula
(0.1%), Anopheles albimanus
(0.1%) and Anopheles rangeli
(0.1%)] were identified and species identity was confirmed by ITS2 sequencing. This is the first report of An. albimanus
, An. rangeli
and An. apicimacula
in Tierradentro. Natural infectivity with Plasmodium
was determined by ELISA. None of the mosquitoes was infectious for Plasmodium
. An. nuneztovari s.l.
was the predominant species and is considered the primary malaria vector; An. darlingi
and An. triannulatus s.l.
could serve as secondary vectors.