G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants|
Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Val, Fernando F. A.; Siqueira, André M.; Franca, Gabriel P.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Melo, Gisely C.; Almeida, Anne C. G.; Brito, Marcelo A. M.; Peixoto, Henry M.; Fuller, Douglas; Bassat, Quique; Romero, Gustavo A. S.; Oliveira, Maria Regina F. & Larcerda, Marcus Vinícius G.
Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ), a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10%) of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available.
G6PD deficiency; malaria control; Plasmodium vivax; primaquine; haemolysis; Amerindians