Localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is the most common form of cutaneous leishmaniasis characterised by
single or multiple painless chronic ulcers, which commonly presents with secondary bacterial infection. Previous culture-
based studies have found staphylococci, streptococci, and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in LCL lesions, but
there have been no comparisons to normal skin. In addition, this approach has strong bias for determining bacterial
composition. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacterial communities in LCL lesions differ from those found
on healthy skin (HS). Using a high throughput amplicon sequencing approach, which allows for better populational
evaluation due to greater depth coverage and the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline, we compared
the microbiological signature of LCL lesions with that of contralateral HS from the same individuals.
and other strict or facultative anaerobic bacteria composed the LCL microbiome. Aerobic
and facultative anaerobic bacteria found in HS, including environmental bacteria, were significantly decreased
in LCL lesions (p < 0.01). This paper presents the first comprehensive microbiome identification from LCL lesions with
next generation sequence methodology and shows a marked reduction of bacterial diversity in the lesions.