A direct agglutination test (DAT) and an
immunofluorescence technique (IFAT) were compared for
detection of Leishmania infantum infection in 43 dogs
and five foxes from Alto-Douro and Arrabida, two known endemic
areas in Portugal. In four dogs with proved canine
leishmaniasis, both DAT and IFAT showed positive readings
(titres }= 1:320 and }= 1:128). Of 34 samples collected from
apparently healthy dogs, ten were positive by both serological
tests and eight were serologically positive by one test or the
other. Three foxes out of five captured in this area, scored
titres indicative of leishmaniasis in both DAT and IFAT. The
concordance between DAT and IFAT in all collected samples (48)
was 81.25%. Considering these and previous studies in the
adjacent Mediterranean areas, the seroprevalence of L.
infantum infection in the canine and vulpine populations
appear to be of high magnitude.