Trypanosoma vivax, originating in Africa, has been found in Central
America, South America, the West Indies and Mauritius. T. vivax was
reported in the New World for the first time in French Guyana and later in
other parts of South America, Central America, and some Caribbean islands.
JJ Shaw and R Lainson made the first record of T. vivax in Brazil when they
recorded its presence in a water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis) from the
vicinity of the city of Belem and cattle and sheep elsewhere in the State
of Para. RAMS Silva et al. reported the first occurence of T. vivax in the
Pantanal region of Brazil on the border with Bolivia and in the same year
this parasite was found in Bolivia.