The Debate Over The Effector Function Of Eosinophils In Helminth Infection: New Evidence From Studies On The Regulation Of Vaccine Immunity By IL-12|
Wynn, Thomas A.
The production of Th1-type cytokines is associated with strong cell-mediated immunity while Th2-type cytokines are typically involved in the generation of humoral immune responses. In mice vaccinated a single time (1X) with attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni, the immunity induced is highly dependent on CD4+ T cells and IFN-g. In contrast, mice vaccinated multiple times (3X) have decreased IFN-g expression, develop a more dominant Th2-type cytokine response as well as protective antibodies which can passively transfer immunity to naive recipients. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of IL-12, a potent IFN-g-inducing cytokine to enhance (1X) schistosome cell-mediated immunity when administered during the period of immunization. More recently, we asked what effects IL-12 would have on the development humoral-based immunity. While multiply-immunized/saline-treated mice demonstrated a 70-80% reduction in parasite burden, 3X/IL-12-vaccinated animals displayed an even more striking >90% reduction in challenge infection, with many mice in the later group demonstrating complete protection. Analysis of pulmonary cytokine mRNA responses demonstrated that control challenged mice elicited a dominant Th2-type response, 3X/saline-vaccinated produced a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response, while 3X/IL-12-immunized animals displayed a dominant Th1-type response. The IL-12-treated group also showed a marked reduction in total serum IgE and tissue eosinophilia while SWAP-specific IgG2a and IgG2b Abs were elevated. Interestingly, animals vaccinated with IL-12 also showed a highly significant increase in total Ig titers specific for IrV-5, a known protective antigen. More importantly, 3X/IL-12 serum alone, when transferred to naive mice reduced worm burdens by over 60% while 3X/saline serum transferred significantly less protection. Nevertheless, animals vaccinated in the presence of IL-12 also develop macrophages with enhanced nitric oxide dependent killing activity against the parasites. Together, these observations suggest that IL-12, initially described as an adjuvant for cell-mediated immunity, may also be used as an adjuvant for promoting both humoral and cell-mediated protective responses.
eosinophil - helmint infection - interleukin-12 - vaccine - Shistosoma mansoni