Eokines: Synthesis, Storage And Release From Human Eosinophils|
Lacy, P. & Moqbel, R.
Eosinophils are prominent inflammatory cells in asthma and other allergic disorders, as well as in helminthic parasite infections. Recently, eosinophils have been reported to synthesize and store a range of regulatory proteins within their secretory granules (eokines). Eokines comprise a group of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors which are elaborated by eosinophils. These proteins, and the messages which encode them, appear to be identical to those produced by lymphocytes and other tissues. Interestingly, immunoreactivity to many of these eokines has been found to co-localize to the eosinophils secretory granules. In this review, we have discussed the repertoire of 18 eokines so far identified in eosinophils, and focused on four of these, namely, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and RANTES. These four eokines co-localize to the crystalloid granules in eosinophils, as shown in studies using subcellular fractionation and immunogold labeling in electron microscopy. During stimulation by physiological triggers, for example, with serum-coated particles, eosinophils release these mediators into the surrounding supernatant. In addition, eokines are likely to be synthesized within eosinophils rather than taken up by endocytosis, as show in detection of mRNA for each of these proteins using in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and in the case of RANTES, in situ RT-PCR. Eokines synthesis and release from eosinophils challenges the commonly held notion that these cells act downstream of key elements in immune system, and indicate that they may instead belong to the afferent arm of immunity.
cytokines - chemokines - interleukin-2 - interleukin-4 - granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor - RANTES