The morphology of the spiracles of fourth instar larva in eight sandfly
species were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Species
studied were: Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), L. ovallesi (Ortiz), L.
youngi Feliciangeli & Murillo, L. evansi (Nunez-Tovar), L. trinidadensis
(Newstead), L. migonei (Franca), L. absonodonta Feliciangeli, and L.
venezuelensis (Floch & Abonnenc).
In larvae of all eight species both thoracic and abdominal spiracles are
located at the top of a globular bulge. Their structure consists of a
spiracular plate with a sclerotized central portion and a rose-like
peripheral portion. The latter has circularly arranged papillae, separated
from each other by elongated septa. Each papilla is longitudinally crossed
by a fine cleft dividing it into two identical parts. The taxonomic and
adaptative value of spiracular morphology is discussed.