In the past few years, new aspects of the immunopathology of Chagas'
disease have been described in immunosuppressed patients, such as fatal
central nervous system lesions related to the reactivation of the parasite.
This article is the first description of the genotypic characterization, at
the strain level, of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from a patient with
Chagas` disease/AIDS co-infection. The presence of four hypodense lesions
was observed in the cranial compute tomographic scan. The diagnosis of AIDS
was assessed by the detection of anti-HIV antibodies using enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot techniques. The CD4^+
lymphocyte counts were maintained under 200 cells/mm^3 during one year
demonstrating the severity of the state of immunosuppression. Chagas'
disease was confirmed by serological and parasitological methods.
Trypomastigote forms were visualized in a thick blood smear. The parasite
isolated is genotypically similar to the CL strain. The paper reinforces
that cerebral Chagas' disease can be considered as another potential
opportunistic infection in AIDS resulting from the reactivation of a
dormant T. cruzi infection acquired years earlier.