The epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis around Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso, West Africa) benefited a lot in the last years from the progress of molecular tools. The two most used molecular techniques were the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of the disease in cattle and the characterization of the
trypanosomes in the host and the vector on one hand, and the microsatellite DNA polymorphism in tsetse flies to study the intraspecific genetic variability of the vector on the other hand. The results obtained in the Sideradougou area during a recent two year survey with these techniques, associated with many other
georeferenced informations concerning vector and cattle distribution, natural environment, landuse, ground occupation, livestock management, were combined in a Geographical Information System. This new approach of a complex pathogenic system led to a better evaluation of the risk of trypanosome transmission.