This article reviews current concepts of the biology of Endotrypanum spp. Data summarized here on parasite classification and taxonomic divergence found among these haemoflagellates come from our studies of molecular characterization of Endotrypanum stocks (representing an heterogenous population of reference strains and isolates from the Brazilian Amazon region) and from scientific literature. Using
numerical zymotaxonomy we have demonstrated genetic diversity among these parasites. The molecular trees obtained revealed that there are, at least, three groups (distinct species?) of Endotrypanum, which are distributed in Central and South America. In concordance with this classification of the parasites
there are further newer molecular data obtained using distinct markers. Moreover, comparative studies (based on the molecular genetics of the organisms) have shown the phylogenetic relationships between some Endotrypanum and related kinetoplastid lineages.