Oral melanoma: review of the literature|
Aline Mie Uratani; Danyel Elias Da Cruz Perez; Pablo Agustin Vargas; Jacks Jorge & Márcio Ajudarte Lopes
Oral melanoma (OM) is an uncommon malignant tumor originated from the proliferation of melanocytes cells. This tumor can be present at any location in the oral cavity, however, it affects more frequently the hard palate and the maxillary alveolar mucosa. There seem to have a predilection for males, elderly and Japanese people. OM is usually asymptomatic in the early stages and it presents normally as a pigmented patch or mass with a rapid growth rate. In advanced stages, can show ulceration, swelling, bleeding, rapid enlargement and loosening of teeth. Diagnosis is based on the histological features, which are characterized by atypical melanocytes initially at the epithelialconnective tissue junction and later, invading the subepithelial connective tissue. The treatment of choice is a radical surgical excision. Additional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy have also been used to improve the prognosis. The main complications are the metastasis which can occur to any organ with a predilection for the cervical lymph nodes. The prognosis is extremely poor especially in advanced stages.
oral melanoma, review