Low birth weight causes survey in neonates|
Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth interval, history of abortion, prenatal care, maternal occupation, level of education, systemic and underlying diseases, history of infections and smoking were extracted from medical records. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS ver.13 using chi-square, t-test and fisher's exact test.
Findings: 19.1% of neonates were LBW newborns. Mean values for maternal age, gestational age, maternal weight and height, and the interval between births of LBW neonates were significantly lower compared with normal birth weight neonates. The number of siblings of LBW neonates was more than normal birth weight neonates. Maternal infections and systemic diseases, occupation, the presence and absence of prenatal care in LBW neonates, showed no significant differences with normal birth weight newborns. Smoking and history of abortion in the mothers of LBW neonates were more than those of normal birth weight neonates. Maternal educational level of LBW neonates was lower than mothers of normal birth weight neonates. The most common maternal infection was vaginitis and the most common maternal systemic disease was hypertension.
Conclusions: The results revealed a correlation between LBW in neonates with maternal age, gestational age, maternal weight and height. There was also a correlation with the interval between pregnancies, number of siblings, maternal smoking, previous abortion and level of mothers' education.
Low birth weight, Newborn, Gestational age, Prematurity