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Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Tehran University of Medical Sciences Press
ISSN: 1018-4406
EISSN: 2008-2150
Vol. 17, No. 4, 2007, pp. 393-397
Bioline Code: pe07074
Full paper language: English
Document type: Review Article
Document available free of charge

Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2007, pp. 393-397

 en Educational Review - Rotational Deformities of the Lower Limb in Children
Panjavi, Behnam & Mortazavi, Javad

Abstract

Rotational deformities are common lower extremity abnormalities in children. Rotational problems include in-toeing and out-toeing. In-toeing is caused by one of the three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four- component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.

Keywords
Rotational deformity, Intoeing gait, Out-toeing gait, Lower limb

 
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